hilip the Good, also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death
He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position. As ruler of Flanders, Brabant, Namur and Limburg, he has played an important role in the history of the Netherlands. Hij is de stichter van de Orde van het Gulden Vlies.
Philip was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing.
Philip also had at least eighteen illegitimate children by various of his 24 documented mistresses, including:
Corneille of Burgundy (c. 1420 - 1452), captain-general/governor of Luxembourg, killed in the Battle of Basel (1452)
Anthony of Burgundy (1421 - 5 mei 1504), lord of La Roche, Sainte-Menehould, Guînes, Lord of Crèvecoeur and Beveren
David of Burgundy, (c. 1427 - 1496) bishop of Therouanne and bishop of Utrecht
Anne of Burgundy (c. 1435 - 1508), governess of Mary of Burgundy, married Adrian of Borssele and later Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein
Raphaël of Burgundy also called Raphaël de Marcatellis, (c. 1437 - 1508), abbot of the Saint-Bavo Abbey in Gent and the Saint-Peter Abbey in Oudenburg
Baldwin of Burgundy (c. 1446 - 1508), Lord of Fallais, Peer, Boudour, Sint-Annaland, Lovendegem, Zomergem en Fromont
Philips of Burgundy (1464 - 1524), Bishop of Utrecht
Corneille and Anthony were his favorite bastard sons and successively bore the title of Grand bâtard de Bourgogne (first Corneille and after his death, Anthony).
Anthony of Burgundy
nthony, the Grand Bastard of Burgundy (prob. Lizy, 1421 -Tournehem 5 May 1504) (Not to be confused with Anthony, Duke of Brabant) was the natural son (and second child) of Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and one of his mistresses, Jeanne de Presle.
Born in 1421, possibly at Lizy in Picardy, he was brought up in the Burgundian court with his younger half-brother, the Count of Charolais, later Charles the Bold, last of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, to whom he grew very close. Together with his older illegitimate half-brother Corneille, bastard of Burgundy (died 1452), he was the favourite amongst the many natural children of Philip the Good.
In 1459, he married Marie de la Viesville by whom he had five children.
He fought for his father on several campaigns, from at least 1451 onwards, and in 1464 left for a crusade against the Turks when he helped raise the siege of Ceuta. In 1456 he was awarded the prestigious Order of the Golden Fleece, held by only 29 others at that time. He took part in the Battle of Montlhéry (1465), when he is said to have saved the life of the Count of Charolais after he was separated from his men and wounded in the neck. In 1466, he was present with Charles at the siege of Dinant, and in the same year he was invited by King Edward IV, for a lengthy stay in England, during which he was to joust against Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, the queen's brother. During this visit, which extended into the summer of 1467, Anthony's father, Philip the Good, died, and Anthony had to hurry back across the channel.
After the death of his father, Anthony participated in nearly every campaign led by the new duke, his half-brother Charles the Bold, starting with the Liège campaign of 1467, when he commanded the largest contingent of 1,353 men. In 1468, Charles appointed him first Chamberlain, head of 99 other chamberlains and thirteen chaplains, all of whom served the duke.
Anthony, bastard of Burgundy. Portrait attributed to Hans Memling, 1467–70.
In contrast to his rather ascetic younger half-brother Charles, it seems that Anthony inherited his father's sexual proclivities: at the chapter of the Golden Fleece held in 1468, he was castigated for his fornication and adultery, in spite of his "valour, prowess and prudence and several other good habits and virtues". But Charles trusted Anthony implicitly, and Anthony served his half-brother militarily and diplomatically with considerable success right up to the time of Charles' dramatic death at the Battle of Nancy in 1477. This loyalty was never called into question even when in 1473 he was accused by Charles of accepting a monetary gift of 20,000 gold écus from Charles' sworn enemy, Louis XI of France.
He also enjoyed sporting success; the arrow he holds in the Van der Weyden portrait is presumed to relate to his year as "archer king" in 1463, after winning the annual contest of the archer's guild of St Sebastian in Bruges. Charles the Bold won the Brussels contest every year between 1466 and 1471.
At the disastrous siege of Beauvais in 1472, Antoine reportedly lost his best jewels. In 1475, he was again sent as a diplomat to the King of England, the Duke of Brittany, the Kings of Sicily, Portugal, Aragon and Naples, and to Venice and the Pope, who received him with great honour. In the middle of these travels, he managed to find time to call in at the siege of Neuss, and later that year he participated in the conquest of the Duchy of Lorraine.
In 1476–1477, he fought alongside Charles the Bold at the three great battles of Grandson, Murten and Nancy, and was taken hostage at the end of the latter by René II, Duke of Lorraine, and delivered to the King of France, who was anxious that Burgundy should never again rebel. But Antoine had no interest in making trouble, and he offered Louis his services to help stabilize the precarious political situation. He was instrumental in arranging the marriage of Duchess Mary, his niece and only child and successor of Charles the Bold, to Maximilian of Austria.
He was a significant collector of illuminated manuscripts, mostly newly commissioned from the best Flemish illuminators and scribes. He had at least forty-five volumes, of which it is estimated that about thirty were contemporary illuminated volumes. Many volumes with his inscription of ownership survive in various libraries, notably an illustrated Froissart in four volumes. Like many other major patrons, Anthony has had an unknown illuminator he commissioned named for him – the "Master of Anthony of Burgundy" was first named in 1921, and worked in Bruges in the 1460s and 1470s for many leading bibliophiles.
The young King Charles VIII of France legitimized Anthony in 1485 and awarded him the Order of Saint Michael. He died at Tournehem near Calais in 1504.
Lewis of Gruuthuse
ewis de Bruges, lord of Gruuthuse, prince of Steenhuijs (c. 1422 (some authors mention 1427) – Bruges 24 November 1492), also called Loys, Louis de/of Gruuthuse or Lodewijk van Gruuthuuse, was a Flemish, courtier, bibliophile, soldier and nobleman. He was awarded the title of Earl of Winchester by king Edward IV of England in 1472, and was Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland 1462-77.
Born in (or about) 1422 as the eldest son of Lord Jean IV of Bruges, and Margriet of Steenhuyse, Lady of Avelghem, young Loys (Louis or Ludovicus) was trained in the arts of war and the court in the wealth and luxury of Flanders' Golden Age. In the Tournament of the White Bear, held in Bruges every year, Loys took part in 1443, 1444, 1447, 1448 and 1450. He often won one of the prizes. This caught the eye of the Duke of Burgundy and Count of Flanders, Philip the Good (1396-1467), who made Loys his squire and official wine server, an honorary title bestowed on only a few selected men.
As a courtier Loys followed the Duke around his expanding duchy. Meeting with the highest nobles and princes in Europe he learned the art of diplomacy and secured his place within the Burgundian court. On 19 April 1450 Loys of Gruuthuse again took part in the Tournament of the White Bear and again he won one of the prizes.
This was his last tournament in Bruges, but a real war now came. The crisis with the town of Ghent about a salt tax reached its zenith and Ghent declared open war on Philip the Good. During this Salt War Loys was appointed governor of Bruges and he proved to be a brave and loyal ally to the duke. During the winter of 1452-1453 the Salt War laid Flanders' countryside to waste, so when spring came the duke gathered his army and moved on Ghent with Loys of Gruuthuse as one of its commanders. Loys was knighted on 23 July 1453 on the battlefield of Gavere and he was given command of the rearguard. The battle was a disaster for Ghent. Its army was destroyed and blood coloured the river Scheldt red. Loys feared the devastation of Ghent and asked the duke to spare the city of plunder. The duke's merciful answer was: "If I would destroy this city, who is going to build me one like it?!"
After the war Loys became a trusted councillor and was sufficiently trusted to arrange the wedding between Charles de Charolais, the duke's son and Margaret of York, sister to the king of England. In 1454 he was present at the Feast of the Pheasant in Lille. In 1455 he himself married Margaretha, lady of Borssele, of the most prominent noble family of Zeeland, related to the Scottish and French royal families and to the dukes of Burgundy. They had several children. Their first son, Jean V, was born in 1458.
In 1461 Loys was made a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He now bore the titles of "Siege (=lord) de Bruges", prince of Steenhuijse, lord of Avelghem, Haamstede, Oostkamp, Beveren, Thielt-ten-Hove and Spiere.
Between 1463 and 1477 he held the position of lieutenant-general (or stadtholder) in The Hague as the duke's highest official in the provinces of Holland, Zeeland and Frisia (though the latter was at that time not part of the Burgundian territories). During the winter of 1470-1471 Gruuthuse hosted King Edward IV, an exile from the Wars of the Roses. In return Edward later gave Gruuthuse the hereditary title of Earl of Winchester, a very exceptional honour for a non-Englishman.
Charles de Charolais, later to be known as Charles the Bold or the Rash (1433-1477), succeeded his father in 1467. Gruuthuse became his trusted councillor as well. After the duke's untimely death on the battlefield at the gates of Nancy he also took care of Charles’ daughter Mary of Burgundy, also known as Maria the Rich. Grateful for his support in the difficult times after her father's death she appointed him chamberlain to her young son Philip. Maria died at the age of 25 in 1482 after a tragic fall from her horse and her husband, the ambitious Maximilian I of Habsburg (1459-1519), soon clashed with the nobility and cities in Flanders as he tried to increase his power at their cost. Gruuthuse more than once came into serious conflict with the father of his protégé, the boy that was to become Duke Philip I of Castile the Handsome (1478-1506) and this has seriously clouded the last years of his life. Louis of Gruuthuse died on 24 November 1492 in his palace at Bruges. It is said that a great thunderstorm raged over the city at the time of his burial.
Louis appears to have been the second largest purchaser in the period, after Philip the Good, of illuminated manuscripts from the best Flemish workshops, then at their peak of success. He appears to have had a book collection totalling 190 volumes, mostly secular in content, of which over half were contemporary illuminated copies. This made his collection over twice the size of the contemporary English Royal collection. He seems to have incorporated portraits of himself in miniatures in several books, as an extra figure, wearing the collar of the Fleece, appears in his copies but not in similar compositions in other copies of the same works. Many of his volumes passed to King Louis XII of France and are now in the Bibliotheque nationale de France, including his four-volume Froissart (BNF, Fr 2643-6) which contains 112 miniatures painted by the best Brugeois artists of the day, among them Loiset Lyédet, to whom the miniatures in the first two volumes are attributed. The other two volumes were done by the anonymous illuminators known as the "Master of Anthony of Burgundy", the Master of Margaret of York, and the "Master of the Dresden Prayer Book" as an assistant.
The "Gruuthuse-manuscript", containing vernacular poetry, was owned by the Belgian noble family van Caloen of Koolkerke near Bruges until it was sold to the Dutch Royal Library in The Hague in February 2007 (link below). Another manuscript, the Penitence d'Adam, of 1472, was dedicated to him by the famous Bruges scribe, and later printer, Colard Mansion.
Louis was in fact one of the last people to commission new manuscripts on such a scale; he probably began collecting books in the late 1460s, with many of his major commissions dating from the 1470s. In some cases even from that decade the titles already existed in printed form, and by the end of his life most titles could be bought printed, and Flemish illumination, especially of secular works, was in deep decline. The collapse of the Burgundian state after the death of Charles the Bold further worsened this position, and there is documentation showing Louis allowed Edward IV of England to buy a Josephus commissioned by him from the workshop, and encouraged him to make other purchases of Flemish manuscripts, probably in an attempt to maintain an industry in crisis.